7 Java Frameworks Used by Developers in 2023

Decades after its initial launch, Java remains one of the most popular, reliable, and advanced programming languages. Its “write once, run anywhere” kind of coding technique provides developers flexibility and versatility.

Moreover, a wide range of development frameworks are available that can enhance the functionality of Java. Using the best Java frameworks provides an edge over competitors.

So, if you are on the lookout for such Java development frameworks, your search ends here. However, picking a suitable option is quite challenging. You must be aware of the frameworks and their capabilities to make an informed decision.

Top 7 Java Frameworks


1. Google Web Toolkit (GWT)

As the name suggests, Google created this web toolkit for the development of Java apps. One of the best features that makes Google Web Toolkit stand out from other Java frameworks is that it allows you to convert your Java code into JavaScript code.

Java developers at Google used this framework to build a variety of products including Blogger, Google Wallet, and AdSense. When you are using Google Web Toolkit, it becomes easy to use Google APIs. So, you can say that it’s a developer-friendly framework.

GWT is also a beginner-friendly framework as it provides an extensive widget library that performs most tasks. This enables beginners to create business logic without sweating on basic stuff.

Developers leverage this framework to create beautiful interfaces for their Java apps. Moreover, the framework renders features like cross-browser compatibility, UI abstraction, and internalization. It might pique your interest to know that the code written using GWT is reusable in many development operations.

The 3 main components of GW are:

  1. The Java to JS code compiler
  2. JRE emulation library that comes with the core JRE library
  3. GWT UI library. It offers features like UI components and history management that help you build interactive user interfaces.

2. Spring Framework

Spring is such a versatile framework that developers use it to simplify complicated enterprise-grade applications. Since its initial release in March 2004, Spring has been robust, popular, and open-source.

It has garnered the reputation of being a “framework of frameworks”. In addition to that, this lightweight solution is often considered as the inversion of Java’s control container.

It might pique your interest to know that Spring’s core features are empowering most of the Java apps out there. On top of that, many developers use the extensions of the framework which allow them to create web apps on top of Spring’s Java Enterprise Edition.

Spring wasn’t named “framework of frameworks” just because it provides features for web app development but also because it is capable of building Java Enterprise Applications. And it is so reliable that many large enterprises use it to empower their platforms. Netflix and Amazon are on that list.

Advantages of Spring:

  • Spring offers a lightweight container that can be triggered without using app server software or a web server.
  • Spring supports Java Database Connectivity. It helps reduce the errors and improve productivity. Spring also supports code testability and backward compatibility.
  • Web development with Spring seems effortless because it supports Beans and Dependency Injection. Spring also allows the developers to use XML and annotation-based configurations extensively.

3. Apache Struts

Struts is open-source so it’s free to use. And this Java framework comes with an MVC architecture. Apache Struts is mostly used for creating modern Java web apps. This Java framework favours convention over configuration. You can extend its capabilities using plugins to support JSON, AJAX, and REST.

Nextgen Technologies, Accenture, Infosys, and many big tech companies use Struts. Mainly the framework is available in two versions: Struts1 and Struts2, where Struts 2 is composed of Struts 1 and OpenSymphony’s WebWork framework.

Apache Struts allows the easy development of MVC-based web apps. It extends Java Servlet API to adopt MVC architectural patterns. Moreover, Struts is beneficial in the following ways:

  • Using Struts can significantly reduce your development time.
  • Easier app maintenance
  • Instead of all the information in a Java program, Struts renders a centralized configuration. Struts values are generally represented in property files or XML.

4. Hibernate

Hibernate is our next object-relational mapping tool on the list of top Java frameworks. Developers can leverage this framework for mapping object-oriented domain models to relational databases.

Hibernate’s primary file is named hibernate.cfg.xml. It consists of information on how to map Java classes with database configuration. The Hibernate framework is used extensively by many top tech companies including Dell, IBM, and Oracle.

Hibernate can help with the creation of persistent classes. Communicating with databases becomes easy using this Java framework. All you need to do is make a little change in your code and you can bridge the gap between relational words and objects.

It is also easy with Hibernate to conduct database operations on Java entities. Some of the advantages of using the Hibernate framework are as follows:

  • It is open-source, so it’s free to use
  • Enhanced productivity
  • Increased portability and maintainability
  • Reusable code

5. Java Server Faces (JSF)

Create component-based UIs for web apps using this Java framework. Java Server Faces is recognized as a standard through Java Community Process.

Building UIs for server-based apps becomes easy with JSF because it uses an MVC architecture pattern. It also offers reusable UI components to use on a page. JSF’s architecture states a clear difference between the app logic and representation. Hence, it also helps in building native apps.

JSF offers a variety of benefits including:

  • Providing a large range of tools to develop elegant UIs.
  • Using JSF, you can extend the existing Java backend code with a web interface. You don’t even need to use another framework or change the base app.

People often mistake JSF for JSP. JSP is a text document that consists of both static and dynamic content. Meanwhile, JSF is a product from Oracle, a Java framework that is also a part of JEE7.

Facelets is set as a default template in JSF. Developers can also integrate this framework with AJAX-enabled components. Here, the AJAX events are added to validations and invocation methods. This further enhances the user experience.

6. Dropwizard

It seems we have a wizard on the list. Dropwizard is regarded as a “wizard” among Java frameworks. It is a lightweight solution that developers can use for fast-paced development. Dropwizard offers a wide range of features such as app metrics, logging, advanced configurations, and more.

Dropwizard consists of such a large range of dependencies that it looks like a separate ecosystem. The use of this Java framework becomes necessary in projects where operation friendliness is demanded.

It also helps quickly create Rest APIs as well as Java microservices. Moreover, the framework supports a variety of independent and open-source libraries. Rapid prototyping and quick project Bootstrap are possible using Dropwizard.

One of the reasons why Dropwizard is considered magical is because it brings in a variety of libraries like Metrics, Jackson, Jersey, and Guava from the Java ecosystem to enable you to build a lean and lightweight app.

7. Grails Framework

Grails is a dynamic framework that is written in a Groovy programming language. It also enables you to integrate with other Java technologies like Hibernate, Quartz, Spring, SiteMesh, and Java EE containers.

Grails follow the paradigm of “coding by convention” which makes it one of those highly productive frameworks. This states how it takes care of much of the configuration details so the developer doesn’t have to bother with them. It also offers a standalone development environment.

Grails comes with very thorough documentation which makes it a developer-friendly Java framework. This Java framework also provides IDE support to many platforms. Some advantages of Grails are as follows:

  • Grails offer a lot of flexible profiles.
  • Object mapping is easy to use with Grails
  • You can mix up the code of both Java and Groovy programming languages and your app will still work perfectly fine.


So, these were some of the most popular and reliable Java frameworks that a developer must know about. There is no doubt that these frameworks are great at what they do. The Java frameworks simplify the development tasks for you as well as save some of your time while you are at it.

Every Java development framework has something unique to offer from which you can gain some exclusive benefits in your day-to-day work. And if you feel stuck somewhere along the way, the Java developers’ community is always there to guide you through the obstacles and help you do your work exceptionally well.

Now, all that remains to do is to compare your objectives against the features and functionalities of these best Java frameworks. It will clear the air of confusion and you will be able to pick a suitable framework for your next Java project.

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